Demand for seafood is increasing with human population while demand per capita is also increasing, but fishing yields have hit a ceiling. Aquaculture has been identified as the solution to humanity's growing demand for protein. The industry has been experiencing a surge in popularity and growth of 8% per year for the past decade. As production from fish farms accelerates it is important to understand the negative impacts to best inform further progress. We are only beginning to understand the potential effects (positive and negative) of the wide variety of aquaculture practices on important coastal ecosystems and societies, and know even less about how to properly mitigate any potential damage from these practices.